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English, German, and French

Comparison table of IPA and hangul

This is an unofficial translation. See the original in Korean on the National Institute of the Korean Language website.

Consonants

IPA symbolHangul: before vowelHangul: before consonant or word-final
ppp, 프 peu
bbbeu
ttt, 트 teu
dddeu
kkk, 크 keu
ɡggeu
fppeu
vbbeu
θsseu
ðddeu
ssseu
zjjeu
ʃsisyu, 시 si
ʒjji
tschcheu
dzjjeu
chchi
jji
mmm
nnn
ɲ니* ni/nynyu
ŋngng
lr, ㄹㄹ lll
rrreu
hhheu
çhhi
xhheu

Semivowels

IPA symbolHangul
j이* i/y
ɥwi
w오, 우* o, u/w

Vowels

IPA symbolHangul
ii
ywi
ee
øoe
ɛe
ɛ̃aeng
œoe
œ̃oeng
æae
aa
ɑa
ɑ̃ang
ʌeo
ɔo
ɔ̃ong
oo
uu
ə**eo
ɚeo

* When 이 i and 오 o, 우 u for [j], [w] or 니 ni for [ɲ] are combined with vowels, follow the detailed transcription rules of Chapter III.
** Write 에 e in the case of German and 으 eu in the case of French.

Transcription of English

This is an unofficial translation. See the original in Korean on the National Institute of the Korean Language website.

Transcribe according to the table while paying attention to the following items.

  1. Voiceless plosives ([p], [t], [k])
    1. Write word-final voiceless plosives ([p], [t], [k]) after short vowels as syllable codas.
      • gap [ɡæp] 갭 gaep
      • cat [kæt] 캣 kaet
      • book [buk] 북 buk
    2. Write voiceless plosives ([p], [t], [k]) between short vowels and consonants other than liquids or nasals ([l], [r], [m], [n]) as syllable codas.
      • apt [æpt] 앱트 aepteu
      • setback [setbæk] 셋백 setbaek
      • act [ækt] 액트 aekteu
    3. Aside from the cases given above, write [p], [t], [k] word-finally and before consonants with 으 eu attached.
      • stamp [stæmp] 스탬프 seutaempeu
      • cape [keip] 케이프 keipeu
      • nest [nest] 네스트 neseuteu
      • part [pɑːt] 파트 pateu
      • desk [desk] 데스크 deseukeu
      • make [meik] 메이크 meikeu
      • apple [æpl] 애플 aepeul
      • mattress [mætris] 매트리스 maeteuriseu
      • chipmunk [tʃipmʌŋk] 치프멍크 chipeumeongkeu
      • sickness [siknis] 시크니스 sikeuniseu
  2. Voiced plosives ([b], [d], [ɡ])
    1. Write voiced plosives with 으 eu attached word-finally or after any consonant.
      • bulb [bʌlb] 벌브 beolbeu
      • land [lænd] 랜드 raendeu
      • zigzag [ziɡzæɡ] 지그재그 jigeujaegeu
      • lobster [lɔbstə] 로브스터 robeuseuteo
      • kidnap [kidnæp] 키드냅 kideunaep
      • signal [siɡnəl] 시그널 sigeuneol
  3. Fricatives ([s], [z], [f], [v], [θ], [ð], [ʃ], [ʒ])
    1. Write [s], [z], [f], [v], [θ], [ð] with 으 eu attached word-finally or after a consonant.
      • mask [mɑːsk] 마스크 maseukeu
      • jazz [dʒæz] 재즈 jaejeu
      • graph [ɡræf] 그래프 geuraepeu
      • olive [ɔliv] 올리브 ollibeu
      • thrill [θril] 스릴 seuril
      • bathe [beið] 베이드 beideu
    2. Write [ʃ] as 시 si word-finally, as 슈 syu before a consonant, and as 샤 sya, 섀 syae, 셔 syeo, 셰 sye, 쇼 syo, 슈 syu, 시 si before a vowel depending on the following vowel.
      • flash [flæʃ] 플래시 peullaesi
      • shrub [ʃrʌb] 슈러브 syureobeu
      • shark [ʃɑːk] 샤크 syakeu
      • shank [ʃæŋk] 섕크 syaengkeu
      • fashion [fæʃən] 패션 paesyeon
      • sheriff [ʃerif] 셰리프 syeripeu
      • shopping [ʃɔpiŋ] 쇼핑 syoping
      • shoe [ʃuː] 슈 syu
      • shim [ʃim] 심 sim
    3. Write [ʒ] as 지 ji word-finally or before a consonant and as ㅈ j before a vowel.
      • mirage [mirɑːʒ] 미라지 miraji
      • vision [viʒən] 비전 bijeon
  4. Affricates ([ts], [dz], [tʃ], [dʒ])
    1. Write [ts], [dz] as 츠 cheu, 즈 jeu word-finally or before a consonant, and [tʃ], [dʒ] as 치 chi, 지 ji.
      • Keats [kiːts] 키츠 Kicheu
      • odds [ɔdz] 오즈 ojeu
      • switch [switʃ] 스위치 seuwichi
      • bridge [bridʒ] 브리지 beuriji
      • Pittsburgh [pitsbəːɡ] 피츠버그 Picheubeogeu
      • hitchhike [hitʃhaik] 히치하이크 hichihaikeu
    2. Write [tʃ], [dʒ] as ㅊ ch, ㅈ j before a vowel.
      • chart [tʃɑːt] 차트 chateu
      • virgin [vəːdʒin] 버진 beojin
  5. Nasals ([m], [n], [ŋ])
    1. Write all nasals as syllable codas word-finally or before a consonant.
      • steam [stiːm] 스팀 seutim
      • corn [kɔːn] 콘 kon
      • ring [riŋ] 링 ring
      • lamp [læmp] 램프 raempeu
      • hint [hint] 힌트 hinteu
      • ink [iŋk] 잉크 ingkeu
    2. Write [ŋ] between vowels as the syllable coda ㅇ ng of the preceding syllable.
      • hanging [hæŋiŋ] 행잉 haeng’ing
      • longing [lɔŋiŋ] 롱잉 rong’ing
  6. Liquid ([l])
    1. Write [l] as a syllable coda word-finally and before a consonant.
      • hotel [houtel] 호텔 hotel
      • pulp [pʌlp] 펄프 peolpeu
    2. If a word-medial [l] comes before a vowel or a nasal ([m], [n]) not followed by a vowel, write it as ㄹㄹ ll. However, write [l] following a nasal ([m], [n]) as ㄹ r even if it comes before a vowel.
      • slide [slaid] 슬라이드 seullaideu
      • film [film] 필름 pilleum
      • helm [helm] 헬름 helleum
      • swoln [swouln] 스월른 seuwolleun
      • Hamlet [hæmlit] 햄릿 Haem-rit → Haemnit
      • Henley [henli] 헨리 Hen-ri → Helli
  7. Long vowels
    • The length of long vowels are not specifically marked.
      • team [tiːm] 팀 tim
      • route [ruːt] 루트 ruteu
  8. Diphthongs and triphthongs ([ai], [au], [ei], [ɔi], [ou], [auə])
    • Write diphthongs and triphthongs by respecting the value of each component vowel, but write [ou] as 오 o and [auə] as 아워 awo.
      • time [taim] 타임 taim
      • house [haus] 하우스 hauseu
      • skate [skeit] 스케이트 seukeiteu
      • oil [ɔil] 오일 oil
      • boat [bout] 보트 boteu
      • tower [tauə] 타워 tawo
  9. Semivowels ([w], [j])
    1. Depending on the following vowel for [w], write [wə], [wɔ], [wou] as 워 wo, [wɑ] as 와 wa, [wæ] as 왜 wae, [we] as 웨 we, [wi] as 위 wi, and [wu] as 우 u.
      • word [wəːd] 워드 wodeu
      • want [wɔnt] 원트 wonteu
      • woe [wou] 워 wo
      • wander [wɑndə] 완더 wandeo
      • wag [wæɡ] 왜그 waegeu
      • west [west] 웨스트 weseuteu
      • witch [witʃ] 위치 wichi
      • wool [wul] 울 ul
    2. When [w] comes after a consonant, divide them into two syllables, but write [ɡw], [hw], [kw] together as one syllable.
      • swing [swiŋ] 스윙 seuwing
      • twist [twist] 트위스트 teuwiseuteu
      • penguin [peŋɡwin] 펭귄 penggwin
      • whistle [hwisl] 휘슬 hwiseul
      • quarter [kwɔːtə] 쿼터 kwoteo
    3. Write the semivowel [j] as 야 ya, 얘 yae, 여 yeo, 예 ye, 요 yo, 유 yu, 이 i combined with the following vowel. However, when [jə] follows [d], [l], [n], write as 디어 dieo, 리어 rieo, 니어 nieo respectively.
      • yard [jɑːd] 야드 yadeu
      • yank [jæŋk] 얭크 yaengkeu
      • yearn [jəːn] 연 yeon
      • yellow [jelou] 옐로 yello
      • yawn [jɔːn] 욘 yon
      • you [juː] 유 yu
      • year [jiə] 이어 ieo
      • Indian [indjən] 인디언 indieon
      • battalion [bətæljən] 버탤리언 beotaellieon
      • union [juːnjən] 유니언 yunieon
  10. Compound words
    1. Write compound words that are composed of words that can stand on their own according to how each component is written separately.
      • cuplike [kʌplaik] 컵라이크 keop-raikeu → keomnaikeu
      • bookend [bukend] 북엔드 buk-endeu → bugendeu
      • headlight [hedlait] 헤드라이트 hedeuraiteu
      • touchwood [tʌtʃwud] 터치우드 teochiudeu
      • sit-in [sitin] 싯인 sit-in → sidin
      • bookmaker [bukmeikə] 북메이커 buk-meikeo → bungmeikeo
      • flashgun [flæʃɡʌn] 플래시건 peullaesigeon
      • topknot [tɔpnɔt] 톱놋 top-not → tomnot
    2. Transcribe words that are written with spaces in the original with the same spacing in hangul. However, these can also be written without spaces.
      • Los Alamos [lɔs æləmous] 로스 앨러모스/로스앨러모스 Roseu Aelleomoseu/Roseuaelleomoseu
      • top class [tɔpklæs] 톱 클래스/톱클래스 top keullaeseu/topkeullaeseu

Supplementary rules (unofficial)

This is an unofficial translation. See the original in Korean on the Gyeoremal-keunsajeon website. These rules, which appear in Chapter VI: ‘Principles of transcription’ of the Transcription Principles of Loanword Transcription Examples, are not part of the official Loanword Transcription Rules, but are nevertheless applied in deciding the standard hangul transcriptions.
  1. Transcribe place names in the form ‘-land’ disregarding the fact that they are compounds; but regardless of pronunciation, write 랜드 raendeu for places in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand; 란트 ranteu for names in German, Dutch, etc.; and 란드 randeu otherwise.
      • Scotland 스코틀랜드 Seukoteullaendeu
      • Saarland 자를란트 Jareullanteu
      • Lapland 라플란드 Rapeullandeu
  2. Apply the following principles for transcribing English. (The Roman letters henceforth represent the spellings, but those in [ ] represent phonetic symbols.)
    1. Write word-final ‘-a’ [ə] as 아 a.
      • Georgia 조지아 Jojia
    2. Write word-final ‘-s’ [z] as 스 seu.
      • James 제임스 Jeimseu
    3. Write ‘i’ and ‘y’ that have the sound value [ə] as 이 i.
      • Halifax 핼리팩스 Haellipaekseu
      • Powys 포이스 Poiseu
    4. Write all ‘-ton’ as 턴 teon.
      • Canton 캔턴 Kaenteon
    5. Write the prefixes ‘Mac-, Mc-‘ as 맥 Maek before a consonant and 매ㅋ Maek before a vowel, but write as 매 Mae before ‘c’, ‘k’, or ‘q’ and as 매클 Maekeul before ‘l’.
      • MacMillan 맥밀런 Maek-milleon → Maengmilleon
      • McKinley 매킨리 Maekin-ri → Maekilli
      • Maclay 매클레이 Maekeullei
    6. Transcribe words linked by ‘and’ without the ‘and’, but always keep the space.
      • Tyne and Wear 타인 위어 Tain Wieo

Transcription of German

This is an unofficial translation. See the original in Korean on the National Institute of the Korean Language website.

Follow the table and apply the rules for the transcription of English. However, transcribe according to the following rules that reflect the peculiarities of German.

  1. [r]
    1. Write [r] before a consonant with 으 eu attached.
      • Hormon [hɔrmoːn] 호르몬 horeumon
      • Hermes [hɛrmɛs] 헤르메스 Hereumeseu
    2. Write word-final [r] and ‘-er’ [ər] as 어 eo.
      • Herr [hɛr] 헤어 heeo
      • Rasur [razuːr] 라주어 rajueo
      • Tür [tyːr] 튀어 twieo
      • Ohr [oːr] 오어 o’eo
      • Vater [faːtər] 파터 pateo
      • Schiller [ʃilər] 실러 Silleo
    3. When the preceding element of a compound word or a derived word ends with [r], apply rule 2.
      • verarbeiten [fɛrarbaitən] 페어아르바이텐 peeoareubaiten
      • zerknirschen [tsɛrknirʃən] 체어크니르셴 cheeokeunisyen
      • Fürsorge [fyːrzorɡə] 퓌어조르게 pwieojoreuge
      • Vorbild [foːrbilt] 포어빌트 po’eobilteu
      • auβerhalb [ausərhalp] 아우서할프 auseohalpeu
      • Urkunde [uːrkundə] 우어쿤데 ueokunde
      • Vaterland [faːtərlant] 파터란트 pateoranteu
  2. As a principle, write word-final plosives with 으 eu attached.
      • Rostock [rɔstɔk] 로스토크 Roseutokeu
      • Stadt [ʃtat] 슈타트 syutateu
  3. Write the spellings ‘berg’, ‘burg’ consistently as 베르크 bereukeu, 부르크 bureukeu.
      • Heidelberg [haidəlbɛrk, -bɛrç] 하이델베르크 Haidelbereukeu
      • Hamburg [hamburk, -burç] 함부르크 Hambureukeu
  4. [ʃ]
    1. Write as 슈 syu word-finally and before a consonant.
      • Mensch [menʃ] 멘슈 mensyu
      • Mischling [miʃliŋ] 미슐링 misyulling
    2. Write as ㅅ s before [y], [ø].
      • Schüler [ʃyːlər] 쉴러 swilleo
      • schön [ʃøːn] 쇤 soen
    3. Before other vowels, write 샤 sya, 쇼 syo, 슈 syu, etc. according to the following vowel.
      • Schatz [ʃats] 샤츠 syacheu
      • schon [ʃoːn] 숀 syon
      • Schule [ʃuːlə] 슐레 syulle
      • Schelle [ʃɛlə] 셸레 syelle
  5. Write ‘äu, eu’ that are pronounced [ɔy] as 오이 oi.
      • läuten [lɔytən] 로이텐 roiten
      • Fräulein [frɔylain] 프로일라인 peuroillain
      • Europa [ɔyroːpa] 오이로파 Oiropa
      • Freundin [frɔyndin] 프로인딘 peuroindin

Supplementary rule (unofficial)

This is an unofficial translation. See the original in Korean on the Gyeoremal-keunsajeon website. This rule, which appears in Chapter VI: ‘Principles of transcription’ of the Transcription Principles of Loanword Transcription Examples, is not part of the official Loanword Transcription Rules, but is nevertheless applied in deciding the standard hangul transcriptions.
  1. In German, add a ㄱ g to ‘ng’ [ŋ] before a vowel or ‘l’.
      • Tübingen 튀빙겐 Twibinggen
      • Spengler 슈펭글러 Syupenggeulleo

Transcription of French

This is an unofficial translation. See the original in Korean on the National Institute of the Korean Language website.

Follow the table and apply the rules for the transcription of English. However, transcribe according to the following rules that reflect the peculiarities of French.

  1. Plosives ([p], [t], [k]; [b], [d], [ɡ])
    1. Write with 으 eu attached word-finally.
      • soupe [sup] 수프 supeu
      • tête [tɛt] 테트 teteu
      • avec [avɛk] 아베크 abekeu
      • baobab [baɔbab] 바오바브 baobabeu
      • ronde [rɔ̃ːd] 롱드 rongdeu
      • bague [baɡ] 바그 bageu
    2. Write voiceless plosives between oral vowels and voiceless consonants (i.e. in the case of ‘oral vowel + voiceless plosive + voiceless plosive or fricative’) as syllable codas.
      • septembre [sɛptɑ̃ːbr] 셉탕브르 septangbeureu
      • apte [apt] 압트 apteu
      • octobre [ɔktɔbr] 옥토브르 oktobeureu
      • action [aksjɔ̃] 악시옹 aksiong
  2. Fricatives ([ʃ], [ʒ])
    1. Write [ʃ], [ʒ] as 슈 syu, 주 ju word-finally or before a consonant.
      • manche [mɑ̃ːʃ] 망슈 mangsyu
      • piège [pjɛːʒ] 피에주 pieju
      • acheter [aʃte] 아슈테 asyute
      • dégeler [deʒle] 데줄레 dejulle
    2. When [ʃ] comes before [ə], [w], write it as 슈 syu combining with the following vowel [sic].
      • chemise [ʃəmiːz] 슈미즈 syumijeu
      • chevalier [ʃəvalje] 슈발리에 syuballie
      • choix [ʃwa] 슈아 syua
      • chouette [ʃwɛt] 슈에트 syueteu
    3. When [ʃ] comes before [y], [œ], [ø] or [j], [ɥ], write it as ㅅ s.
      • chute [ʃyt] 쉬트 switeu
      • chuchoter [ʃyʃɔte] 쉬쇼테 swisyote
      • pêcheur [pɛʃœːr] 페쇠르 pesoereu
      • shunt [ʃœ̃ːt] 쇵트 soengteu
      • fâcheux [fɑʃø] 파쇠 pasoe
      • chien [ʃjɛ̃] 시앵 siaeng
      • chuinter [ʃɥɛ̃te] 쉬앵테 swiaengte
  3. Nasal ([ɲ])
    1. Write [ɲ] as 뉴 nyu word-finally or before a consonant.
      • campagne [kɑ̃paɲ] 캉파뉴 kangpanyu
      • dignement [diɲmɑ̃] 디뉴망 dinyumang
    2. When [ɲ] comes before 아 a, 에 e, 오 o, 우 u, combine with the following vowel and write 냐 nya, 녜 nye, 뇨 nyo, 뉴 nyu respectively.
      • saignant [sɛɲɑ̃] 세냥 senyang
      • peigner [peɲe] 페녜 penye
      • agneau [aɲo] 아뇨 anyo
      • mignon [miɲɔ̃] 미뇽 minyong
    3. When [ɲ] comes before [ə], [w], write it as 뉴 nyu combining with the following sound.
      • lorgnement [lɔrɲəmɑ̃] 로르뉴망 roreunyumang
      • baignoire [bɛɲwaːr] 베뉴아르 benyuareu
    4. Write [ɲ] as ㄴ n in all other cases.
      • magnifique [maɲifik] 마니피크 manipikeu
      • guignier [giɲje] 기니에 ginie
      • gagneur [gaɲœːr] 가뇌르 ganoereu
      • montagneux [mɔ̃taɲø] 몽타뇌 mongtanoe
      • peignures [pɛɲyːr] 페뉘르 penwireu
  4. Semivowel ([j])
    1. Write 유 yu word-finally.
      • Marseille [marsɛj] 마르세유 Mareuseyu
      • taille [tɑːj] 타유 tayu
    2. Write [j] between vowels as 예 ye, 얭 yaeng, 야 ya, 양 yang, 요 yo, 용 yong, 유 yu, 이 i, etc., combining with the following vowel. However, if the following vowel is [ø], [œ], write as 이 i.
      • payer [peje] 페예 peye
      • billet [bijɛ] 비예 biye
      • moyen [mwajɛ̃] 무아얭 muayaeng
      • pleiade [plejad] 플레야드 peulleyadeu
      • ayant [ɛjɑ̃] 에양 eyang
      • noyau [nwajo] 누아요 nuayo
      • crayon [krɛjɔ̃] 크레용 keureyong
      • voyou [vwaju] 부아유 buayu
      • cueillir [kœjiːr] 쾨이르 koeireu
      • aïeul [ajœl] 아이욀 aioel
      • aïeux [ajø] 아이외 aioe
    3. Write [j] as 이 i in all other cases.
      • hier [jɛːr] 이에르 iereu
      • Montesquieu [mɔ̃tɛskjø] 몽테스키외 Mongteseukioe
      • champion [ʃɑ̃pjɔ̃] 샹피옹 syangpiong
      • diable [djɑːbl] 디아블 diabeul
  5. Semivowel ([w])
    • Write [w] as 우 u.
      • alouette [alwɛt] 알루에트 allueteu
      • douane [dwan] 두안 duan
      • quoi [kwa] 쿠아 kua
      • toi [twa] 투아 tua

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