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Other languages, Latin, Greek

General principles of transcribing other languages

This is an unofficial translation. See the original in Korean on the Gyeoremal-keunsajeon website. These rules, which appear as Chapter VII of the Transcription Principles of Loanword Transcription Examples, are not part of the official Loanword Transcription Rules, and parts have been superseded (crossed out and indicated below), but remaining parts (with some modifications) nevertheless continue to be applied in deciding standard hangul transcriptions.
  1.  
    • Apply the principle of writing the spellings ‘a, e, i, o, u’ as 아 a, 에 e, 이 i, 오 o, 우 u respectively.
  2.  
    • Write ‘ä’ as 에 e even if it is pronounced [æ].
      • Sodankylä 소단퀼레 Sodankwille
  3.  
    • Write ‘o’ (or ‘ó’ and such) as 오 o even if it is pronounced [u].
      • Kraków 크라코프 Keurakopeu (superseded in 1992 with the addition of rules for Polish; now written 크라쿠프 Keurakupeu)
      • Lwów 르보프 Reubopeu (superseded in 1992 with the addition of rules for Polish; now written 르부프 Reubupeu)
    • However, for Portuguese, write 오 o/우 u depending on the pronunciation (superseded in 2005 with the addition of rules for Portuguese).
      • Óbidos 오비두스 Obiduseu
      • Pedro 페드루 Pedeuru
  4.  
    • Write ‘i’ as 이 i without combining with the following vowel even if it is pronounced [j].
      • Iași 이아시 Iasi (superseded in 1992 with the addition of rules for Romanian)
      • Ploiești 플로이에슈티 Peulloiesyuti (superseded in 1992 with the addition of rules for Romanian)
  5.  
    • Write ‘j’ that is pronounced [j] as 야 ya, 예 ye, etc. in combination with the following vowel, and if it is preceded by a consonant, combine with the consonant as well. However, if it cannot be combined with the following vowel, write it as 이 i.
      • Centinje 체티녜 Chetinye (superseded in 1992 with the addition of rules for Serbo-Croatian; now written 체티네 Chetine)
      • Reykjavík 레이캬비크 Reikyabikeu
      • Björneborg 비외르네보리 Bioereunebori (superseded in 1995 with the addition of rules for Swedish; now written 비에르네보리 Biereunebori)
  6.  
    • Write ‘y’ between vowels or in word-initial position as 야 ya, 예 ye, etc. in combination with the following vowel, and if it is between a consonant and a vowel, combine only with the preceding consonant.
      • Yezd 예즈드 Yejeudeu
      • Jayapura 자야푸라 Jayapura (superseded in 2004 with the addition of rules for Malay/Indonesian)
      • Akyab 아키아브 Akiabeu
      • Konya 코니아 Konia
  7.  
    • Write ‘u’ as 우 u without combining with the following vowel. However, if it is preceded by consonants [k], [ɡ], [h], [x], combine and write as 콰 kwa, 퀘 kwe, etc., but if the following vowel is ‘o’, then write as 쿠오 kuo, 구오 guo, etc.
      • Suez 수에즈 Suejeu
      • Guardafui 과르다푸이 Gwareudapu’i
      • Mergui 메르귀 Mereugwi
      • Kuopio 쿠오피오 Kuopio
  8.  
    • Write ‘w’ that is pronounced [w] as 와 wa, 웨 we, etc. in combination with the following vowel. If it is preceded by a consonant and it is one of [k], [ɡ], [h], [x], combine with the consonant as well and write 콰 kwa, 퀘 kwe, etc., and if it is another consonant, write it separately with 으 eu attached.
      • Wewak 웨와크 Wewakeu
      • Gwader 과데르 Gwadereu
      • Gondwana 곤드와나 Gondeuwana
      • Rwanda 르완다 Reuwanda
  9. Write plosives as follows.
    1. Write word-final plosives with 으 eu attached, both for voiced ([b], [d], [ɡ]) and voiceless ([p], [t], [k]) sounds.
      • Akyab 아키아브 Akiabeu
      • Split 스플리트 Seupeulliteu (superseded in 1992 with the addition of rules for Serbo-Croatian)
    2. Write voiced plosives between a vowel and a consonant with 으 eu attached, and write voiceless plosives as syllable codas, but if the following consonant is [l], [r], [m], [n], write with 으 eu attached.
      • Nagpur 나그푸르 Nageupureu
      • Ecbatana 엑바타나 Ekbatana
      • Paknam 파크남 Pakeunam (superseded in 2004 with the addition of rules for Thai; now written 빡남 Ppak-nam → Ppangnam)
  10.  
    • Apply the principle of writing ‘th’ as ㅌ t/트 teu and ‘ts’ as ㅊ ch/츠 cheu.
      • Bothnia 보트니아 Boteunia
      • Amritsar 암리차르 Am-richareu → Amnichareu
  11.  
    • Do not transcribe ‘h’ before a consonant or word-finally even if it is pronounced.
      • Pahlavi 팔라비 Pallabi
      • Nineveh 니네베 Ninebe
  12.  
    • Write ‘n’ as ㄴ n even if it is not pronounced [n]. However, when it is [ŋ], write as syllable coda ㅇ ng.
      • İstanbul 이스탄불 Iseutanbul
      • Bengasi 벵가지 Benggaji
  13.  
    • In ‘ng’ between vowels, insert ㄱ g in writing even if [ŋ] [sic] is not pronounced.
      • Angaur 앙가우르 Anggaureu
      • Groningen 그로닝겐 Geuroninggen (superseded in 2005 with the addition of rules for Dutch; now written 흐로닝언 Heuroning’eon)
  14.  
    • Do not write doubled consonants as doubled, even if they are doubled in pronunciation. However, write ‘-mm-‘ and ‘-nn-‘ as doubled regardless of pronunciation.
      • Philippus 필리푸스 Pillipuseu
      • Annam 안남 Annam (superseded in 2004 with the addition of rules for Vietnamese; in Vietnamese spelling, it is An Nam)
  15.  
    • Write ‘M + consonant‘ and ‘Ng + consonant‘ as 음- eum-, 은- eun- respectively, but write ‘Ng-‘ as 응ㄱ Eungg.
      • Mbandaka 음반다카 Eumbandaka
      • Ndola 은돌라 Eundolla
      • Nkrumah 은크루마 Eunkeuruma
      • Nguesso 응궤소 Eunggweso
  16. In Portuguese,
    1. Write ‘ão’ as 앙 ang, disregarding the ‘o’.
      • João 주앙 Juang (this would be written 조앙 Joang according to the 2005 rules for Portuguese, but the conventional spelling 주앙 Juang has been kept as the standard hangul spelling)
      • São 상 Sang
    2. Write ‘m’ and ‘n’ before a consonant or word-finally as syllable codas ㅁ m, ㄴ n respectively (superseded in 2005 with the addition of rules for Portuguese).
      • Campos 캄푸스 Kampuseu
      • Henrique 엔리케 Enrike (now written 엔히크 Enhikeu, or for Brazilian Portuguese, 엔히키 Enhiki)
      • Belém 벨렘 Bellem (now written 벨렝 Belleng)
    3. Write all ‘s’ as ㅅ s/스 seu and all ‘z’ as ㅈ j/즈 jeu (superseded in 2005 with the addition of rules for Portuguese).
      • Vasco 바스코 Baseuko (now written 바스쿠 Baseuku)
      • Cruz 크루즈 Keurujeu (now written 크루스 Keuruseu)
  17.  
    • Write place names of the form ‘-ore’ in India and the surroundings as 오르 oreu.
      • Bangalore 방갈로르 Banggalloreu
      • Serampore 세람포르 Seramporeu

Principles for transcribing Latin

This is an unofficial translation. See the original in Korean on the Gyeoremal-keunsajeon website. These rules, which appear as Chapter VIII of the Transcription Principles of Loanword Transcription Examples, are not part of the official Loanword Transcription Rules, but are nevertheless applied in deciding the standard hangul transcriptions.
  1.  
    • Write ‘y’ as 이 i.
      • Dionysius 디오니시우스 Dionisiuseu
  2.  
    • Write ‘ae, oe’ as 아이 ai, 오이 oi respectively.
      • Ptolemaeus 프톨레마이우스 Peutollemaiuseu
      • poena 포이나 poina
  3.  
    • Write ‘j’ as 야 ya, 예 ye, etc. in combination with the following vowel, and write word-initial ‘I + vowel‘ also as 야 ya, 예 ye, etc.
      • Johannes 요한네스 Yohanneseu
      • Trajanus 트라야누스 Teurayanuseu
      • Iustinus 유스티누스 Yuseutinuseu
  4.  
    • As ‘b’ before ‘s’ or ‘t’ and word-final ‘b’ are voiceless, write according to the transcription rules for [p].
      • substantia 숩스탄티아 supseutantia
  5.  
    • Write ‘c’ and ‘ch’ according to the transcription rules for [k].
      • Cicero 키케로 Kikero
      • Chimaera 키마이라 Kimaira
  6.  
    • Write ‘n’ before ‘g’ or ‘c’ as syllable coda ㅇ ng.
      • Longinus 롱기누스 Rongginuseu
  7.  
    • Write ‘v’ as ㅂ b even if it is pronounced [w].
      • Vergilius 베르길리우스 Bereugilliuseu

Principles for transcribing Greek

This is an unofficial translation. See the original in Korean on the Gyeoremal-keunsajeon website. These rules, which appear as Chapter IX of the Transcription Principles of Loanword Transcription Examples, are not part of the official Loanword Transcription Rules, but are nevertheless applied in deciding the standard hangul transcriptions. Please note that this applies only to Ancient Greek, not Modern Greek. The original only refers to the traditional Latinized spellings, so the original Greek spellings and scientific transliterations have been supplied in lighter letters.
  1.  
    • Write ‘y’ as 이 i.
      • Polybios (Πολύβιος Polúbios) 폴리비오스 Pollibioseu
  2.  
    • Write ‘ae, oe, ou’ as 아이 ai, 오이 oi, 우 u respectively.
      • Achaia (Ἀχαΐα ‎Akhaḯa) 아카이아 Akaia
      • Delphoe (Δελφοί ‎Delphoí) 델포이 Delpoi
      • Epicouros (Ἐπίκουρος ‎Epíkouros) 에피쿠로스 Epikuroseu
  3.  
    • Write ‘c’ and ‘ch’ according to the transcription rules for [k].
      • Cercyra (Κέρκυρα Kérkura) 케르키라 Kereukira
      • Aeschylos (Αἰσχύλος ‎Aiskhúlos) 아이스킬로스 Aiseukilloseu
  4.  
    • Write ‘n’ before ‘g, c, ch, h’ as syllable coda ㅇ ng.
      • ancyra (ἄγκυρα ‎ágkura) 앙키라 angkira

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