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Russian

Comparison table of Russian letters and hangul

This is an unofficial translation. See the original in Korean on the National Institute of the Korean Language website.

Consonants

RomanizationRussian letterHangul: before vowelHangul: before consonantHangul: word-finalExamples
bбbp, 브 beupeuBolotov (Болотов) 볼로토프 Bollotopeu, Bobrov (Бобров) 보브로프 Bobeuropeu, Kurbskii (Курбский) 쿠릅스키 Kureupseuki, Gleb (Глеб) 글레프 Geullepeu
chчchchichiGoncharov (Гончаров) 곤차로프 Goncharopeu, Manechka (Манечка) 마네치카 Manechika, Yakubovich (Якубович) 야쿠보비치 Yakubobichi
dдdt, 드 deuteuDmitrii (Дмитрий) 드미트리 Deumiteuri, Benediktov (Бенедиктов) 베네딕토프 Benediktopeu, Nakhodka (Находка) 나홋카 Nahotka, Voskhod (Восход) 보스호트 Boseuhoteu
fфpp, 프 peupeuFyodor (Фёдор) 표도르 Pyodoreu, Yefremov (Ефремов) 예프레모프 Yepeuremopeu, Iosif (Иосиф) 이오시프 Iosipeu
gгgk, 그 geukeuGogol’ (Гоголь) 고골 Gogol, Musorgskii (Мусоргский) 무소륵스키 Musoreukseuki, Bogdan (Богдан) 보그단 Bogeudan, Andarbag (Андарбаг) 안다르바크 Andareubakeu
khхhheuheuKhabarovsk (Хабаровск) 하바롭스크 Habaropseukeu, Akhmatova (Ахматова) 아흐마토바 Aheumatoba, Oistrakh (Ойстрах) 오이스트라흐 Oiseuteuraheu
kкkk, 크 keukeuKalmyk (Калмык) 칼미크 Kalmikeu, Aksakov (Аксаков) 악사코프 Aksakopeu, Kvas (Квас) 크바스 Keubaseu,
Vladivostok (Владивосток) 블라디보스토크 Beulladiboseutokeu
lлr, ㄹㄹ llllLenin (Ленин) 레닌 Renin, Nikolai (Николай) 니콜라이 Nikollai, Krylov (Крылов) 크릴로프 Keurillopeu, Pavel (Павел) 파벨 Pabel
mмmm, 므 meumMikhaiil (Михаийл) 미하일 Mihail, Maksim (Максим) 막심 Maksim, Mtsensk (Мценск) 므첸스크 Meuchenseukeu
nнnnnNadya (Надя) 나댜 Nadya, Stefan (Стефан) 스테판 Seutepan
pпpp, 프 peupeuPyotr (Пётр) 표트르 Pyoteureu, Rostopchinya (Ростопчиня) 로스톱치냐 Roseutopchinya, Pskov (Псков) 프스코프 Peuseukopeu, Maikop (Майкоп) 마이코프 Maikopeu
rрrreureuRybinsk (Рыбинск) 리빈스크 Ribinseukeu, Lermontov (Лермонтов) 레르몬토프 Rereumontopeu, Artyom (Артём) 아르툠 Areutyom
sсsseuseuVasilii (Василий) 바실리 Basilli, Stefan (Стефан) 스테판 Seutepan, Boris (Борис) 보리스 Boriseu
shш시* si/sysisiShelgunov (Шелгунов) 셸구노프 Syelgunopeu, Shishkov (Шишков) 시시코프 Sisikopeu
shchщ시* si/sysisiShcherbakov (Щербаков) 셰르바코프 Syereubakopeu, Shchirets (Щирец) 시레츠 Sirecheu, borshch (борщ) 보르시 boreusi
tтtt, 트 teuteuTat’yana (Татьяна) 타티야나 Tatiyana, Khvatkov (Хватков) 흐밧코프 Heubatkopeu, Tver’ (Тверь) 트베리 Teuberi, Buryat (Бурят) 부랴트 Buryateu
tchтчchGatchina (Гатчина) 가치나 Gachina, Tyutchev (Тютчев) 튜체프 Tyuchepeu
tsц, тсchcheucheuKapitsa (Капица) 카피차 Kapicha, Tsvetaeva (Цветаева) 츠베타예바 Cheubetayeba, Bryatsk (Брятск) 브랴츠크 Beuryacheukeu, Yakutsk (Якутск) 야쿠츠크 Yakucheukeu
vвbp, 브 beupeuVerevkin (Веревкин) 베렙킨 Berepkin, Dostoevskii (Достоевский) 도스토옙스키 Doseutoyepseuki, Vladivostok (Владивосток) 블라디보스토크 Beulladiboseutokeu, Markov (Марков) 마르코프 Mareukopeu
zзjjeu, 스 seuseuZaichev (Зайчев) 자이체프 Jaichepeu, Kuznetsov (Кузнецов) 쿠즈네초프 Kujeunechopeu, Agryz (Агрыз) 아그리스 Ageuriseu
zhжjjeu, 시 sisiZhadovskaya (Жадовская) 자돕스카야 Jadopseukaya, Zhdanov (Жданов) 즈다노프 Jeudanopeu, Luzhkov (Лужков) 루시코프 Rusikopeu, Kebezh (Кебеж) 케베시 Kebesi
j/iйiiiYurii (Юрий) 유리 Yuri, Andrei (Андрей) 안드레이 Andeurei, Belyi (Белый) 벨리 Belli

Vowels

RomanizationRussian letterHangulExamples
aаaAksakov (Аксаков) 악사코프 Aksakopeu, Abakan (Абакан) 아바칸 Abakan
eе
э
e, 예 yePetrov (Петров) 페트로프 Peteuropeu, Evgenii (Евгений) 예브게니 Yebeugeni, Alekseev (Алексеев) 알렉세예프 Allekseyepeu, Ertel’ (Эртель) 예르텔 Yereutel
iиiIvanov (Иванов) 이바노프 Ibanopeu, Iosif (Иосиф) 이오시프 Iosipeu
oоoKhomyakov (Хомяков) 호먀코프 Homyakopeu, Oka (Ока) 오카 Oka
uуuUshakov (Ушаков) 우샤코프 Usyakopeu, Sarapul (Сарапул) 사라풀 Sarapul
yыiSaltykov (Салтыков) 살티코프 Saltikopeu, Kyra (Кыра) 키라 Kira, Belyi (Белый) 벨리 Belli
yaяyaYasinskii (Ясинский) 야신스키 Yasinseuki, Adygeya (Адыгея) 아디게야 Adigeya
yoёyoSolov’yov (Соловьёв) 솔로비요프 Sollobiyopeu, Artyom (Артём) 아르툠 Areutyom
yuюyuYurii (Юрий) 유리 Yuri, Yurga (Юрга) 유르가 Yureuga

* When 시 si for ‘sh (ш), shch (щ)’ is combined with a following vowel, write them as one syllable.

Transcription of Russian

This is an unofficial translation. See the original in Korean on the National Institute of the Korean Language website.

Follow the table and transcribe according to the following specificities.

  1. ‘p (п), t (т), k (к), b (б), d (д), g (г), f (ф), v (в)’
    • Write the plosive and fricative ‘f (ф), v (в)’ as codas to the preceding syllable before a voiceless consonant, and with 으 eu attached before a voiced consonant.
      • Sadko (Садко) 삿코 Satko
      • Agryz (Агрыз) 아그리스 Ageuriseu
      • Akbaur (Акбаур) 아크바우르 Akeubaureu
      • Rostopchinya (Ростопчиня) 로스톱치냐 Roseutopchinya
      • Akmeizm (Акмеизм) 아크메이즘 Akeumeijeum
      • Rubtsovsk (Рубцовск) 룹촙스크 Rupchopseukeu
      • Bryatsk (Брятск) 브랴츠크 Beuryacheukeu
      • Lopatka (Лопатка) 로팟카 Ropatka
      • Yefremov (Ефремов) 예프레모프 Yepeuremopeu
      • Dostoevskii (Достоевский) 도스토옙스키 Doseutoyepseuki
  2. ‘z (з), zh (ж)’
    • Write ‘z (з)’ and ‘zh (ж)’ as 즈 jeu before a voiced consonant and as 스 seu and 시 si respectively before a voiceless consonant.
      • Nazran’ (Назрань) 나즈란 Najeuran
      • Nizhnii Tagil (Нижний Тагил) 니즈니타길 Nijeunitagil
      • Ostrogozhsk (Острогожск) 오스트로고시스크 Oseuteurogosiseukeu
      • Luzhkov (Лужков) 루시코프 Rusikopeu
  3.  
    • Following convention, transcribe ‘-grad (град)’ and ‘-gorod (город)’ in place names as -그라드 -geuradeu and -고로드 -gorodeu.
      • Volgograd (Волгоград) 볼고그라드 Bolgogeuradeu
      • Kaliningrad (Калининград) 칼리닌그라드 Kallinin’geuradeu
      • Slavgorod (Славгород) 슬라브고로드 Seullabeugeuradeu
  4.  
    • Write ‘-ds (дс)-‘ before a consonant as 츠 cheu.
      • Petrozabodsk (Петрозаводск) 페트로자보츠크 Peteurojabocheukeu
      • Vernadskii (Вернадский) 베르나츠키 Bereunacheuki
  5.  
    • Write ‘l (л)’ as syllable coda ㄹ l word-finally or before a consonant, and if a word-medial ‘l’ comes before a vowel, then write it as ㄹㄹ ll.
      • Pavel (Павел) 파벨 Pabel
      • Nikolaevich (Николаевич) 니콜라예비치 Nikollayebichi
      • Zemlya (Земля) 제믈랴 Jemeullya
      • Tsimlyansk (Цимлянск) 치믈랸스크 Chimeullyanseukeu
  6.  
    • If ‘l’ (ль), m (м)’ come before a consonant word-initially, write as 리 ri, 므 meu respectively.
      • L’bovna (Льбовна) 리보브나 Ribobeuna
      • Mtsensk (Мценск) 므첸스크 Meuchenseukeu
  7.  
    • Write doubled consonants as if they were not doubled. However, write ‘mm (мм), nn (нн)’ as ㅁㅁ mm, ㄴㄴ nn before a vowel.
      • Gippius (Гиппиус) 기피우스 Gipiuseu
      • Avvakum (Аввакум) 아바쿰 Abakum
      • Odessa (Одесса) 오데사 Odesa
      • Akkol’ (Акколь) 아콜 Akol
      • Sollogub (Соллогуб) 솔로구프 Sollogupeu
      • Anna (Анна) 안나 Anna
      • Gamma (Гамма) 감마 Gamma
  8.  
    • Write ‘e (е, э)’ as 에 e after a consonant, and write as 예 ye otherwise.
      • Aleksei (Алексей) 알렉세이 Alleksei
      • Egvekinot (Егвекинот) 예그베키노트 Yegeubekinoteu
  9. Soft sign ”(ь)’
    • Write the soft sign ”(ь)’ as 이 i. However, do not write it when ‘l’, m’, n’ (ль, мь, нь)’ come before a consonant or word-finally.
      • L’bovna (Льбовна) 리보브나 Ribobeuna
      • Igor’ (Игорь) 이고리 Igori
      • Il’ya (Илья) 일리야 Illiya
      • D’yakovo (Дьяково) 디야코보 Diyakobo
      • Ol’ga (Ольга) 올가 Olga
      • Perm’ (Пермь) 페름 Pereum
      • Ryazan’ (Рязань) 랴잔 Ryajan
      • Gogol’ (Гоголь) 고골 Gogol
  10.  
    • Write ‘dz (дз), dzh (дж)’ the same way as ‘z, zh’ respectively.
      • Dzerzhinskii (Дзержинский) 제르진스키 Jereujinseuki
      • Tadzhikistan (Таджикистан) 타지키스탄 Tajikiseutan

Principles for Transcribing Russian (superseded)

This is an unofficial translation. See the original in Korean on the Gyeoremal-keunsajeon website. These rules, which appear as Chapter X of the Transcription Principles of Loanword Transcription Examples, are not part of the official Loanword Transcription Rules, and have been superseded by the rules above introduced in 2005. They are provided here for reference. The original only refers to the romanized spellings, so the original Russian spellings have been supplied in lighter letters. 
  1.  
    • As ‘e’ can be [je] after a vowel or word-initially, write these ‘e’ as 예 ye. (Now these are all written asye, even in the case where it represents э [e].)
      • Enisei (Енисей) 예니세이 Yenisei
      • Nikolaev (Николаев) 니콜라예프 Nikollayepeu
  2.  
    • Write ‘ii’ as a single 이 i.
      • Chaikovskii (Чайковский) 차이코프스키 Chaikopeuseuki (now written 차이콥스키 Chaikopseuki)
  3.  
    • Write ‘y’ as 이 i before a consonant or word-finally.
      • Kolyma (Колыма) 콜리마 Kollima
      • Shakhty (Шахты) 샤흐티 Syaheuti
  4.  
    • Write ‘y + vowel’ combined as 야 ya, 예 ye, etc., and if it is preceded by a consonant, write with the consonant combined as well.
      • Yamal (Ямал) 야말 Yamal
      • Pyotr (Пётр) 표트르 Pyoteureu
  5.  
    • Write ‘kh’ as ㅎ h before a vowel and as 흐 heu before a consonant or word-finally.
      • Khiva (Хива) 히바 Hiba
      • Shakhty (Шахты) 샤흐티 Syaheuti
      • Kazakh (Казах) 카자흐 Kajaheu
  6.  
    • Write ‘ch’ as ㅊ ch before a vowel and as 치 chi before a consonant or word-finally.
      • Chu (Чу) 추 Chu
      • Ivanovich (Иванович) 이바노비치 Ibanobichi
  7.  
    • Write ‘sh’ as 샤 sya, 셰 sye, etc. in combination with the following vowel, but write it as 슈 syu before a consonant or word-finally. (Now it is writtensi in the latter case.)
      • Shakhty (Шахты) 샤흐티 Syaheuti
      • Ashkhabad (Ашхабад) 아슈하바트 Asyuhabateu (아시하바트 Asihabateu according to the new rules, but now written 아시가바트 Asigabateu after the Turkmen form Aşgabat/Ашгабат)
      • Balkhash (Балхаш) 발하슈 Balhasyu (발하시 Balhasi according to the new rules, but 발하슈 Balhasyu is retained as the standard spelling)

       

  8.  
    • Write ‘shch’ as 시ㅊ sich/시치 sichi. (Now it is writtensi.)
      • Khrushchyov (Хрущёв) 흐루시초프 Heurusichopeu (now written 흐루쇼프 Heurusyopeu)
  9.  
    • Write ‘zh’ as ㅈ j before a vowel, as 주 ju/슈 syu before a consonant, and as 슈 syu word-finally (see the following item 10). (Now it is writtenjeu/시 si before a consonant and assi word-finally.)
      • Zhigansk (Жиганск) 지간스크 Jiganseukeu
      • Zhrau (Жрау) 주라우 Jurau (now written 즈라우 Jeurau, although the more common form is Zhyrau (Жырау) 지라우 Jirau)
      • manezh (манеж) 마네슈 manesyu (now written 마네시 manesi)
  10.  
    • Write ‘b, d, g, v, z, zh’ the same way as ‘p, t, k, f, s, sh’ before a voiceless consonant or word-finally. However, write ‘-grad’ in place names as 그라드 geuradeu according to conventional usage.
  11.  
    • Write word-final ‘ng’ as syllable coda ㅇ ng. (Current rules make no mention of this combination.)
      • Rosing (Розинг) 로싱 Rosing (the ‘s’ in the conventional romanization corresponds to a ‘z (з)’ in the original; now written 로진크 Rojinkeu, at least according to the rules)
      • flang (фланг) 플랑 peullang (now written 플란크 peullankeu, at least according to the rules)
  12.  
    • Write consonants with the apostrophe ‘ (the soft sign) with 이 i attached before a consonant or ‘ya, yo, yu’, or word-finally.
      • Gor’kii (Горький) 고리키 Goriki
      • drob’ (дробь) 드로피 deuropi
    • However, write ‘ch’, sh” as 치 chi, 시 si before ‘ya, yo, yu’, and disregard the apostrophe otherwise. Also, disregard the apostrophe and write ‘m” and ‘n” word-finally and ‘l” between a vowel and a consonant or word-finally as syllable codas only. (Now the soft sign is also disregarded even for word-medial ‘m’, n”.)
      • Ch’ya (Чья) 치야 Chiya
      • Chitaesh’ (Читаешь) 치타예슈 Chitayesyu (now written 치타예시 Chitayesi)
      • lin’ka (линька) 리니카 rinika (now written 린카 Rinka)
      • Kazan’ (Казань) 카잔 Kajan
      • L’vov (Львов) 리보프 Ribopeu
      • Il’ya (Илья) 일리야 Illiya
      • Vol’sk (Вольск) 볼스크 Bolseukeu
      • Gomel’ (Гомель) 고멜 Gomel

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